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Egypt Aegyptus

Egypt Aegyptus

On 58 B.C. Ptolomeo XII asks for the support of Rome and it is put under the protection of Cneo Pompeyo, until his death in the year 51 AD .  Then a Roman protectorate is produced when Pompeyo had to be exerted an executor for the wedding of both siblings Cleopatra VII Filópator and Ptolomeo XIII Dioniso II (51-47 B.C.)

48 B.C. Pompeyo flees to Egypt after their defeat in the battle of Farsalia in Tesalia, where he is assassinated.  Julius Caesar follows him, acquiring Queen Cleopatra’s favor and failing against his brother Ptolomeo XIII.  A son attributes itself to him, Cesarión, with queen Cleopatra.

43 B.C. the second triumvirate is created, and Egypt is assigned to Antonio Frame, that happens to become new consort of Cleopatra, which were married in the year 37 AD

31 B.C.  the defeat of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra in the naval battle of Actium before Augusto and the fleet of Agripa.

30 B.C. _ Octavo enters Alexandria and Egypt is annexed like an independent piece of property

139 A.D._ Marco Aurelio adds new taxes that will bring about the rebellion of the Egyptians and several years of fight.

183 A.D._ Roman general Avidius Casio is proclaimed emperor and is recognized by the armies of Egypt and Syria. Marcus Aurelios demotes him and has him assassinated

193 AD. A similar episode with Persenio Niger that also self-proclaims emperor and is put under Rome as well

202 A.D.  The Emperor Severe Septimio grants a constitution to the city of Alexandria and other capitals 211 A.D. Caracalla grants Roman citizenship to all the Egyptian population.  This actually is translated to newly imposed taxes, several anti-Roman rebellions follow throughout all the 3rd century one following another

250 A.D. The Emperor of Decio initiates a new persecution of Christianity

269-272 A.D. Zenobia, Queen of Palmira, conquers the province of Egypt but is defeated by Aureliano (273 d.C.) 296 A.D. Two resident Roman generals in Egypt, Probus and Lucio Domitius Domitianus direct individual rises and emperors self-proclaim themselves.  Diocleciano reclaims the city of Alexandria from the hands of L. Domitius and reorganizes the entire province.

In 395 A.D. It is integrated in the Eastern Roman Empire. In 640 it is conquered by the Arabs. Cyrenaica province borders the land of Canaan to the east and its extension corresponds roughly with present Egypt.  During approximately 3,000 years Egypt was the richest country in the world.  Its economy was based mainly on a special agricultural system designed to take advantage of the periodic swellings the Nile river.  Many cereals were cultivated, mainly wheat and barley, of which bread and beer are produced from.  Vegetables and fruits were also grown in the Mediterranean gardens and linen was produced there. The Egyptians set off to mine the desert zone and export grain and cattle. Through the Nile and the Mediterranean they maintained an intense commerce with Eastern and Central Africa and the Middle East.

Its political system implied great intervention from the state in all the orders from technology to the cultural and artistic expressions and it was endorsed by religious beliefs. His king or Faraón was a semidivine personage. The Egyptians created their own system of writing and alphabet, usings the golden number and the decimal system, had great knowledge of geometry and algebra, astronomy and topography. They were excellent in medicine and surgery, the invented sailing and the use of mortar for construction and were able to realize great engineering installations, from the construction of the Pyramids to the whole joint development of canals to irrigate their land for agriculture, and opening a canal that united the Red Sea and the Nile for the transportation of merchandise in barges. After a short period within the Persian Empire, Egypt was released in the 4th century BC by Alexander the Great. A strong helenización takes place then and Alexandria, the city founded by Alexander and with a great number of Greek inhabitants, gets to be the center of all the hellenistic culture. Later, like a Roman province, Egypt becomes the barn of the Empire and sends a third of its cereals necessary to supply Rome. The quantity and price is fixed depending of the stock in Alexandria and the grain is then delivered to the city of Alexandria.

  • Alexandria (founded by Great Alexander in 332 BC). Roman theater, town of the Birds, catacombs of Kom the Shukafa, Greco-roman Museum and National Museum of Alexandria. Columnata de Pompeyo and attached archaeological deposit.
  • Antinoópolis (founded by Adriano on 130 AD in honor his lover Antínoo)
  • Cairo. In the museum of Cairo you find mummies, funeral masks and statues of the Roman time, but it is prohibited to take photos. In the Copto district, you find the remains of a Roman tower.
  • Island of Philae in Aswan: Remains of the Temple of Trajano, in quite good state, as well as of a second Roman temple and remains of lower Rome in an Egyptian temple.

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