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Romania Dacia Rumanía


The DACIA is a Roman province whose territory corresponds approximately of present-day Rumania. CREATION: 107 A.D.


CAPITAL: Sarmizegetusa


In year 70 BC several dacias tribes that inhabited the North border of the Danube settled in present Rumania.  At this time, the just created Roman province of Moesia to the south of the river, Augusto signs with them several treaties of peace that will stay with the successive Roman emperors and dacios kings.  By the end of century I AD the new king of Dacia, Diurpanneo, changes this policy of alliances and begins an aggressive foreign policy that includes attacking the caravans of retailers and, sometimes, sacking the border cities of the Roman Empire.  Rome responds sending the XXI Rapax Legion under the command of the Prefect of Pretorio. The legion completely is destroyed and Diurpaneo changes its name by the one of Decébalo (“stronger than ten”). Forced by the circumstances, Rome reaches an agreement that includes guaranteeing peace, the payment of an annual amount to the Dacios and the shipment of engineers and architects so that they can construct or improve their buildings, water canalization in Sarmizegetusa, the capital.  Beginning 2nd century AD, emperor Trajano decides to end this situation. On one hand, the Dacia has important natural wealth that includes gold mines and the Empire, but since it is worn away by war campaigns, they are in need of new income.  On the other, the idea that Rome is paying any amount to a Barbarian kingdom creates a great political restlessness.


FIRST  DACIAN WAR. In 101 AD Trajano personally directed part of its army marches with 86,000 men to encounter Decébalo and their allies and defeat them in Tapae.   In 102 AD, after several smaller battles, Dacia becomes a tributary state of the Roman Empire that installs several legions there to assure its dominion.


SECOND DACIAN WAR. Decébalo continues inciting rebellion to the many Dacian tribes and attacks the Roman border colonies frequently.  In 105 AD., Trajano returns to reunite its armies to march on Dacia. War of small battles, supposes an important wearing down for the Roman army. In the summer, Rome besieges the capital, Sermizegetusa, that finally is taken and burned.  Decébalo is forced to commit suicide.  The war still continues until the final battle of Porolissum in 107. The capital moves then about 40 km. to the southwest and she is re-founded as Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dalica Sermizegetusa.


Of the 2 million inhabitants that were estimated in Dacia, about a million were evacuated and turned into slaves.  In order to eliminate the possibility of new rebellions, Trajano initiated the repopulation of the area with free Roman citizens, to whom they provided land free of charge.  Dacia thus became a Roman province not only of office staff and military men but also in the culture aspect as well, from the language to the customs. This situation of intense Romanisation difference to the present Rumania of the neighboring countries of Slavic origin. Dacia was a Roman province up to 271 AD in which, after the invasion of the godas tribes, Rome orders the evacuation of the administration and they leave the territory.





_Triumphal  Monument of Adamclisi (Dobruja)

_ Sibiu Museum (Transilvania)

_ Bucharest Musuem